The low-power rectifier diode 1n4004 has average specs in the range of the popular and inexpensive 1n400x. This semiconductor device, despite its small size, is capable of handling DC currents up to 1A and voltages up to 400V. Silicic, with a diffuse p-n junction structure. Modern counterparts comply with the lead-free RoHS standard and are fire resistant in accordance with the UL94-V0 standard.
They are currently produced by both well-known and unknown manufacturers with standardized package markings. Some radio amateurs sometimes mistakenly type “in4004” when searching, but there are no products with this marking. This mistake is typical for such queries resulting in information about 1n400x series diodes.
The 1N4004 diode pinout is shown in the diagram below. It has an often classic DO-204AL (or DO-41) plastic package. The cathode contact is identified by a colored stripe. The weight of the product does not exceed 0.33 grams.
The 1n4004 is available in a DO-214AC smd package for surface mounting. Their electrical parameters do not differ much from their counterparts in the classical DO-204AL package. They are marked “M4”.
Let’s get acquainted with main parameters of 1n4004. This diode is specially designed for rectification of alternating voltage with frequency up to 60 Hz. The information in the datasheet is given for an ambient temperature not exceeding 25OC.
Maximum specs for 1n4004:
- Peak reverse pulse voltage (V RRM) and closing voltage (V DC) up to 400 V;
- RMS voltages (V RMS) up to 280 V;
- maximum forward rectified current (I O) up to 1 A;
- Crystal operating temperature range (T J) from -65C to +15OC.
These values are given for resistive and inductive loads, for capacitive loads they should be 20% lower. For stable diode operation it is necessary to maintain a margin of 30% in all parameters, even a short-term excess of them can lead to damage to the device.
The 1n4004 is positioned as a device with a low voltage drop (VF) of 1.1V or less, at a current (I O) of 1A, capable of withstanding large overloads. For example, a possible instantaneous surge current (I FSM) value of up to 30 A can be achieved when tested in accordance with the European JEDEC standard. The typical electrical capacitance (C J) value does not exceed 15 pF, at a signal frequency of 1 MHz with a DC voltage of up to 4 V. In practice, they are not recommended for use in high-frequency circuits.
The crystal temperature of newer versions of the diode can reach + 175OC. However, it should be remembered that its specs drop significantly below +75OC and the 5A leakage current can rise to a critical 50A. This feature is common across the 1n400x range and is usually specified by the manufacturers at the start of the datasheet.
The marking of the 1n4004 conforms to US standard EIA370 (JEDEC). The first symbol “1N” identifies the diode and the following digits indicate its serial number. M4″ is printed on the outside of SMD packages.
1n4004 is quite common, so looking for an equivalent is not considered feasible. However, there are not many devices that have the same parameters as 1n4004. In most cases, we recommend using more powerful diodes of the same series as a replacement: 1n4005, 1n4006, 1n4007.
Diodes of 1N400X series are produced by many companies, technical datasheets of each company can be downloaded from this link.